Statistics Regarding TBI

The US (statistics of 2014)

Overview

  • In 2014, about 2.87 million TBI-related emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and deaths occurred in the United States, including over 837,000 of these health events among children.

  • TBI contributed to the deaths of 56,800 people, including 2,529 deaths among children.

  • TBI was diagnosed in approximately 288,000 hospitalizations, including over 23,000 among children.  These consisted of TBI alone or TBI in combination with other injuries.

  • In 2014, an estimated 812,000 children (age 17 or younger) were treated in U.S. EDs for concussion or TBI, alone or in combination with other injuries.

  • Over the span of eight years (2006–2014), while age-adjusted rates of TBI-related ED visits increased by 54%, hospitalization rates decreased by 8% and death rates decreased by 6%.

 

Leading causes

  1. falls were the leading cause of TBI. Falls accounted for almost half (48%) of all TBI-related emergency department visits. 

  2. Being struck by or against an object was the second leading cause of TBI-related ED visits, accounting for about 17% of all TBI-related ED visits in the United States in 2014.

  3. Falls and motor vehicle crashes were the first and second leading causes of all TBI-related hospitalizations (52% and 20%, respectively).

  4. Intentional self-harm was the first leading cause of TBI-related deaths (33%) in 2014.

 

Risk factors

Among TBI-related deaths in 2014:

  • Rates were highest for persons 75 years of age and older.

  • The leading cause of TBI-related death varied by age:

  • Falls were the leading cause of death for persons 65 years of age or older.

  • Intentional self-harm was the leading cause of death for persons 45-64 years of age.

  • Motor vehicle crashes were the leading cause of death for persons 15-24, 25-34, and older adults aged ≥75 years.

  • Homicide was the leading cause of death for children ages 0-4 years.

Among TBI-related ED visits and hospitalizations in 2014:

  • Hospitalization rates were highest among persons 75 years of age and older.

  • Rates of ED visits were highest for persons 75 years of age and older and children 0-4 years of age.

  • The leading cause of TBI-related ED visits varied by age:

  • Falls were the leading cause of ED visits among young children aged 0 to 4 years and older adults 65 years and older.

  • Being struck by or against an object was highest among those 5 to 14 years of age.

  • The leading cause of TBI-related hospitalizations varied by age:

  • Falls were the leading cause of hospitalizations among children 0 to 17 years and adults 55 years of age and older.

  • Motor vehicle crashes were the leading cause of hospitalizations for adolescents and adults aged 15 to 44 years of age.

 

Canada

Overview

By 2031, traumatic brain injury (TBI) is expected to be among the most common neurological conditions affecting Canadians, along with Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, and epilepsy. 

 

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of disability globally. In Canada, 2% of the population lives with a TBI, and there are 18,000 hospitalizations for TBI each year. One-third of individuals with a TBI are women, and TBI is particularly common early in the reproductive years (15-24 years), with intimate partner violence and accidents being major causes. Women with TBI are more likely than men to experience mental health problems post-injury. 

 

*Please note: The following series of stats has been extrapolated from United States data to the population of Canada.

 

TBI occurs at an annual rate of 500 out of 100,000 individuals.  That is approximately 165,000 in Canada. This equals 456 people every day, or one person injured every 3 minutes in Canada.

 

TBI occurs at a rate of 100 times that of spinal cord injury.

 

When injury due to stroke or other non-traumatic causes is included, close to 4% of the population lives with brain injury. That equates to over 1.5 million Canadians living with acquired brain injury.

 

A comparison with other prevalent diseases

26,900 Canadian women will be diagnosed with breast cancer.

An estimated 4,300 new cases of Spinal Cord Injury occur each year in Canada.

4015 Canadian will be diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis in the next year.

 

165,000 Canadians will have a traumatic brain injury this year.

 

Indirect economic costs due to working-age disability will increase and will be greatest for hospitalized traumatic brain injury (rising from $7.3 billion in 2011 to $8.2 billion in 2031). 

Leading causes

  1. Falls are the most frequent reason for TBI hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits among children under 5 years of age.

  2. Sports and recreational activities emerge as a leading cause of TBI-related hospitalizations and ED visits among children and youth aged 5 to 19. 

  3. Assaults are a leading cause of TBI hospitalizations and ED visits among males 20 to 39 years of age. 

  4. Falls not related to sports and recreation take over as the predominant mechanism of TBI-related deaths, hospitalizations and ED visits, with especially high rates among those 85 years and older from age 40 years and onward.

 

References

“TBI: Get the Facts.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 11 Mar. 2019, www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury/get_the_facts.html. 

“Statistics on Brain Injury.” In Canada, www.braininjurycanada.ca/en/statistics-brain-injury. 

Resources by Jenny Tao

Voices of Brain Injury

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