Cerebral Sinus Vein Thrombosis

Overview

Cerebral Sinus Vein Thrombosis, CSVT, is a rare type of thrombosis with high difficulty in diagnosis and treatments. It affects about 3 to 4 adults per million and 7 children per million. It also has sexual predominance since 75% of patients are female. 

 

Causes

CSVT is usually a result of strokes that cause blood clot in venous sinuses (blood vessels) the brain. Because blood can not properly circulate in the brain, they may break sinuses and leak into brain tissue, which leads to hemorrhages. 

 

Risk factors 

  • CSVT has genetic deposition. Mutations in certain genes can increase the risk of CSVT

  • Brain tumour and cancer

  • Head trauma

  • CNS infection

  • Hyperhomocysteinemia

  • Neurological surgery, pregnancy and puerperium

  • Oral contraceptives 

 

Symptoms 

  • Headache

  • Loss control of movement of parts of the body

  • Loss of consciousness 

  • Visual impairment (including painful weakness of eye muscle, eye irritation and bulging eyes)

  • Seizures 

  • Coma

  • Nausea and vomiting

  • Changes in mental state

 

Diagnosis

Since the symptoms of CSVT resemble regular strokes or concussions, it’s likely that early signs will be ignored or patients can be misdiagnosed. So medical professionals will tend to perform blood tests and neuroimaging diagnosis such as CT and MRI scans on patients to find the specific location of thrombosis, which can help with future treatment.

 

Treatment

  • Use antibiotics if infections are present

  • Use medicine to control seizures 

  • Use anticoagulants to prevent further blood clotting

  • Maintain the blood pressure in the head

  • Surgery, if needed

  • Rehabilitation may be necessary for patients who lost movement or speech ability 

 

Respond to CSVT

  • If symptoms above occur to you, ask people around you to call 911

  • Follow advice from medical professionals, take prescribed medicine and attend rehabilitation 

  • Follow a healthy diet, avoid smoking and exercise daily

Resource by Cassie Wang